(1)Cancer is the second leading cause of death globally, and is responsible for an estimated 9.6 million deaths in 2018. Generally, about 1 in 6 deaths is due to cancer. The number of new cancer cases is on the rise globally. Deaths from cancer worldwide are projected to reach over 13 million in 2030. Thus, developing the device that has the capability to solve today’s toughest global challenge is crucial through bold innovation.
(2)Removing cancer is much more effective than radiation or chemotherapy. However, when unseen residual cancer cells remain, cancerous cell could grow back into a tumour over time. This cancer recurring contributes to a greater risk of death. Whereas, cutting too much may risk removing patients’ healthy tissues that have important functions. Hence, developing a system that is able to distinguish between the cancerous cell and normal cell is ultimately essential to make sure no cancer is left behind during surgery.
(3) The application of optical spectrometer with typical range of wavelength between ultraviolet, visible and even up to near infrared for a simple colorimetric measurement of sample is too costly. Secondly, data through the spectroscopy software can only be processed and analyzed by trained personnel. From the existing research, the researcher only characterised the colour of their samples through the spectrometer, without any reproducibility examination of their results. Thirdly, various existing literatures from scientific journals indicate that the common approach in analysing the colour changes of Phenol Red due to different pH is through optical spectrometer. While these articles have confirmed that the colour changes of Phenol Red can best be performed using wavelength at approximately 560-570 nm, until today, no literature suggest any effort from researcher to develop simplified and much lower cost optical instrument for this purpose. Ironically, the findings show that innovating a portable, cost effective system with smart IoT gateway integration is substantial to provide quantitative & reproducibility result on-site at any specific location.