Pastoralist communities form a large proportion of the population in East and Horn of Africa. In Kenya over 50% of the population is pastoralist entirely dependent on livestock and demands movement in search of pasture. This poses a challenge for theprovision of basic services, particularly in an environment where these are in any case only available to a minority within the region, mostly in urban areas, and there of poor quality. Pastoralists and especially nomadic pastoralists are living at the margins of society. They face serious threats to their livelihood in terms of recurring drought, reduced pasture and competition over land with agriculturalists, increased insecurity/conflict, and reduced/unpredictable markets for their livestock.
As a result the vast majority of school age children in Kenya have had no access to basic education.There has been virtually no or very small scale state delivery of basic social services including education. Education is inaccessible to the majority of children from pastoralist communities and the currentinflexible infrastructure-focused education commonly promoteddoes not respond to their needs, nor takes into consideration their lifestyle; in particular migration patterns, their specific livestock-based livelihood and their unique cultures. Curricula have remained irrelevant; for example it does not address the strengthening of their capacity for disaster prevention and management. Teaching methodologies remain classroom/plenary focused, emphasizing rote learning.