The rights of Indonesian sexual and gender minorities have come under
unprecedented attack in 2016. While lesbian, gay, bisexual, and
transgender (LGBT) civil society groups had endured sporadic hateful
rhetoric and violent attacks over the preceding three decades, they had
been able to gain a foothold and increasing recognition as part of
Indonesia’s pluralistic society. And while no national laws specifically
protected them against discrimination, the central government had never
criminalized same-sex behavior.