A farmer performs following eight major steps from crop selection to harvesting:
Much like in real estate, an investor can add value to their property by making improvements. In agriculture, this can include turning raw land into crops or pastureland. Also, swapping out lower end crops such as commodity or row crops to higher end crops like trees, or converting farmland from conventional farming to higher return organic farming can increase the value of the investment. Equity can also be built by improving the buildings and infrastructure on the land. These changes will increase the value of the land and can lead to larger profits when the investor decides to sell it.
Investors can make money from cash flow from crops that are harvested. Most crops are annual, but in some locations there can be multiple harvests per year. In certain cases, these yields are secured via long-term contracts with tenant farmers or from customers who agree to purchase the crops. It is also important to note that crop insurance, which protects the farmer in the event of a catastrophe, also protects the investor. This means that even if crops are destroyed or their revenue declines due to declines in commodity prices, the farmer will still receive funds with which they can pay their lease.